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|Title:||Does an index composed of clinical data reflect effects of inflammation, coagulation, and monocyte activation on mortality among those aging with HIV?|
|Authors:||Justice, Amy C.;Freiberg, Matthew S.;Tracy, Russ;Kuller, Lew;Tate, Janet P.;Goetz, Matthew Bidwell;Fiellin, David a.;Vanasse, Gary J.;Butt, Adeel a.;Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.;Gibert, Cynthia;Oursler, Kris Ann;Deeks, Steven G.;Bryant, Kendall|
|Abstract:||BACKGROUND: When added to age, CD4 count and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA alone (Restricted Index), hemoglobin, FIB-4 Index, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and estimated glomerular filtration rate improve prediction of mortality. Weighted and combined, these 7 routine clinical variables constitute the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index. Because nonroutine biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin 6 [IL-6]), coagulation (D-dimer), and monocyte activation (sCD14) also predict mortality, we test the association of these indices and biomarkers with each other and with mortality.\n\nMETHODS: Samples from 1302 HIV-infected veterans on antiretroviral therapy were analyzed. Indices were calculated closest to date of collection. We calculated Spearman correlations stratified by HIV-1 RNA and HCV status and measured association with mortality using C statistics and net reclassification improvement (NRI).\n\nRESULTS: Of 1302 subjects, 915 had HIV-1 RNA <500 copies/mL and 154 died. The VACS Index was more correlated with IL-6, D-dimer, and sCD14 than the Restricted Index (P < .001). It was also more predictive of mortality (C statistic, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], .72-.80) than any biomarker (C statistic, 0.66-0.70) or the Restricted Index (C statistic, 0.71; 95% CI, .67-.75). Compared to the Restricted Index alone, NRI resulted from incremental addition of VACS Index components (10%), D-dimer (7%), and sCD14 (4%), but not from IL-6 (0%).\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Among HIV-infected individuals, independent of CD4, HIV-1 RNA, and age, hemoglobin and markers of liver and renal injury are associated with inflammation. Addition of D-dimer and sCD14, but not IL-6, improves the predictive accuracy of the VACS Index for mortality.|
|More Information:||VOLUME : 54ISSUE : 7START PAGE : 984|
END PAGES : 994
|Appears in Collections:||Clinical Infectious Diseases|
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