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|Title:||Spectral imaging using clinical megavoltage beams and a novel multi-layer imager|
|Authors:||Myronakis, Marios E;Fueglistaller, Rony;Rottmann, Joerg;Hu, Yue-Houng;Wang, Adam;Baturin, Paul;Huber, Pascal;Morf, Daniel;Star-Lack, Josh M;Berbeco, Ross I|
|Abstract:||We assess the feasibility of clinical megavoltage (MV) spectral imaging for material and bone separation with a novel multi-layer imager (MLI) prototype. The MLI provides higher detective quantum efficiency and lower noise than conventional electronic portal imagers. Simulated experiments were performed using a validated Monte Carlo model of the MLI to estimate energy absorption and energy separation between the MLI components. Material separation was evaluated experimentally using solid water and aluminum (Al), copper (Cu) and gold (Au) for 2.5 MV, 6 MV and 6 MV flattening filter free (FFF) clinical photon beams. An anthropomorphic phantom with implanted gold fiducials was utilized to further demonstrate bone/gold separation. Weighted subtraction imaging was employed for material and bone separation. The weighting factor (w) was iteratively estimated, with the optimal w value determined by minimization of the relative signal difference () and signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR) between material (or bone) and the background. Energy separation between layers of the MLI was mainly the result of beam hardening between components with an average energy separation between 34 and 47 keV depending on the x-ray beam energy. The minimum average energy of the detected spectrum in the phosphor layer was 123 keV in the top layer of the MLI with the 2.5 MV beam. The w values that minimized and SDNR for Al, Cu and Au were 0.89, 0.76 and 0.64 for 2.5 MV; for 6 MV FFF, w was 0.98, 0.93 and 0.77 respectively. Bone suppression in the anthropomorphic phantom resulted in improved visibility of the gold fiducials with the 2.5 MV beam. Optimization of the MLI design is required to achieve optimal separation at clinical MV beam energies.|
|More Information:||VOLUME : 62 ISSUE : 23 START PAGE : 9127 END PAGES : 9139|
|Appears in Collections:||Physics in Medicine & Biology|
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|2017 PMB Volume 62 Issue 23 November (22).pdf||1.95 MB||Adobe PDF|
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